Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits which develop in the kidney from the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinanalysis to rule in urine pH and hypercalcemia can indicate the presence of kidney stones. Imaging is the gold standard to look for the presence of stones. Use ultrasound for diagnostic proposes in pregnant women(1).
- Family history of kidney stones
- Recurrent urinary tract infections
- Renal tubular acidosis
- GI disease
- Prior urologic surgery
Ask about a decrease of urinary volume, blood in the urine and pain. Discuss any reduced fluid intake especially when in combination with strenuous exercise. Pain is often characterized as lumbar colicky pain and often rated severe to very severe occurring in spasms lasting a few minutes. Nausea and vomiting may accompany these symptoms(1).